In Roman times, toilets used to be a public and convivial place. An epigram from Martial reveals just how public privies were among the most frequented places in the city for socializing:
“In omnibus Vacerra quod conclavibus consumit horas et die toto sedet, cenaturit Vacerra, non cacaturit.”
which translates to “In privies Vacerra consumes the hours; the whole day does he sit; Vacerra wants to dine, he does not want to shit” Martial – Book 11 – Epigram 77
To modern readers, this can sound rather shocking as, for us, going to the toilet is most definitely a private matter. However, public latrines were perfectly acceptable in Ancient Rome.
Toilets are to be found at many archaeological sites. They vary in size and shape from the large semi-circular or rectangular ones to the smaller private ones with up to 10 seats. Here is a collection of public toilets (foricae) I have photographed at different sites.
Some latrines were adorned with marble revetments and fountains like the latrines of the Wrestlers Baths at Saint-Romain-en-Gal (France). The walls were decorated with frescoes depicting wrestlers and discus throwers under the supervision of a referee.
Private toilets have been found in Roman houses and upstairs apartments. Pompeii and Herculaneum have good examples of these (see Image Gallery: Pompeii’s Toilets).
However, if you were not fortunate enough to live in a house with a toilet, you would use a chamber pot.
Water and sanitation in Imperial Rome (video)
Communal latrines were also present in the camps set up by the Roman armies, particularly on the frontiers of the Roman Empire. Some of the best representations of soldier’s toilets are to be found around Hadrian’s Wall in Britain.